The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) occurs naturally in most of Europe, the Mediterranean region, and much of Asia. This species has also been intentionally or accidentally introduced to many parts of the world, making it the most widely distributed wild bird. Although it is strongly associated with human habitations, it is not the only sparrow species found near houses. It is a small bird, with feathers mostly different shades of brown and grey. The House Sparrow is a very social bird and is gregarious at all seasons when feeding, often forming flocks with other types of bird. It roosts communally, its nests are usually grouped together in clumps, and it engages in a number of social activities, such as dust and water bathing, and “social singing“, in which birds call together in bushes.
Widespread resident, except in parts of northeast and North West sub-continent. Male has grey crown, black throat and upper breast, chestnut nape, and brownish mantle. Female has buffish supercilium and unstreaked greyish-white underparts. Breeds in Habitation; also cultivation in winter.
The Sind Sparrow (Passer pyrrhonotus), also known as the Sind Jungle Sparrow, Jungle Sparrow, or Rufous-backed Sparrow, is distributed in patches around the Indus valley region of Pakistan and adjoining parts of India, where its habitat is usually tall grass and thorn scrub near water. Both sexes of the Sind Sparrow are very similar to the House Sparrow, but slightly smaller, with a number of unique features.
The Sind Sparrow is about 13 cm (5? in) long. It is gregarious, generally forming small groups of four to six birds while feeding and at breeding colonies. During winter, the non-breeding season, it forms larger flocks of as many as 30 birds, and joins flocks with other seed-eating birds. It mainly feeds on the seeds of grasses and other plants such as Polygonum plebeium.
Spanish Sparrow (Passer hispaniolensis) is found in the Mediterranean region and southwest and central Asia. It is very similar to the House Sparrow, and the two species show their close association in a “biological mix-up“ of hybridisation in the Mediterranean region, which complicates the taxonomy of this species. The Sparrow Sparrow is about 15–16 cm (5.9–6.3 in) in length, and 22–36 g (0.8–1.3 oz) in weight. It is slightly larger and heavier than the House Sparrow, and also has a slightly longer and stouter bill.
The Spanish Sparrow is gregarious, flocking and breeding in groups. In the winter, it mostly wanders nomadically or makes regular migrations. Like other sparrows, it feeds principally on the seeds of grains and other grasses, also eating leaves, fruits, and other plant materials. Young birds feed mostly on insects, and adults also feed on insects and other animals during and before the breeding season.
The Russet Sparrow (Passer rutilans), also known as the Cinnamonor Cinnamon Tree Sparrow, is a chunky little seed-eating bird with a thick bill. It has a body length of14–15 cm(5.5–5.9 in). Its pl umage is mainly warm rufous above and grey below and it shows sexual dimorphism, with both sexes having a pattern similar to that of the corresponding sex of House Sparrow.
It has a sweet and musical chirps, which when strung together form a song. The Russet Sparrow is described as shy and wary by some observers, although J. Denis Summers-Smith found it approachable in Indian hill stations.
The Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) has a rich chestnut crown and nape, and a black patch on each pure white cheek. The sexes are similarly plumaged, but the young birds are a duller version of the adult. This sparrow breeds over most of temperate Eurasia and Southeast Asia, where it is known as the Tree Sparrow, and it has been introduced elsewhere including in the United States, where it is known as the Eurasian Tree Sparrow or German Sparrow in an effort to differentiate it from the native unrelated American Tree Sparrow.
Although several subspecies are recognised, the appearance of this bird varies little across its extensive range. The Eurasian Tree Sparrow builds an untidy nest in a natural cavity, a hole in a building or the large nest of a magpie or stork. The typical clutch is five or six eggs that hatch in less than two weeks. This sparrow feeds mainly on seeds, but invertebrates are also consumed, particularly during the breeding season. The Eurasian Tree Sparrow appears widespread in the towns and cities of eastern Asia, but in Europe it is a bird of lightly wooded open countryside, with the House Sparrow breeding in the more urban areas.